Ccs-security providing information security to keep how to save up money fast as a teenager you safe online

A web site is a powerful tool that enables businesses, government, and private users to share information and conduct business on how to save up money fast as a teenager the internet. Organizations – small and large, private and public – are devoting many resources to creating attractive, attention-getting web sites, but they may be neglecting basic security controls. Recent attacks on web sites have shown that the computers how to save up money fast as a teenager that support web sites are vulnerable to attacks that can how to save up money fast as a teenager range from minor nuisances to significant interruptions of service. This ITL bulletin discusses the most commonly employed methods for how to save up money fast as a teenager protecting web servers and provides practical guidance on steps that how to save up money fast as a teenager organization can take to reduce the threat of attacks.

All privileged software not specifically required by the web server how to save up money fast as a teenager should be removed. For the purposes of this document, privileged software is defined as software that runs with administrator how to save up money fast as a teenager privileges or that receives packets from the network. Operating systems often run a variety of privileged programs by how to save up money fast as a teenager default. Many systems administrators are not even aware of the existence how to save up money fast as a teenager of many of these programs. Each privileged program provides another avenue by which an attacker how to save up money fast as a teenager can compromise a web server. It is therefore crucial that web servers be purged of how to save up money fast as a teenager unnecessary programs. For greater security and because it is often difficult to how to save up money fast as a teenager identify what software is privileged, many systems administrators remove all software not needed by a how to save up money fast as a teenager web server.

Install public web servers outside of an organization’s firewall. In this configuration, the firewall prevents the web server from sending packets into how to save up money fast as a teenager an organization’s network. If an attacker on the internet penetrates the external web how to save up money fast as a teenager server, they have no more access to the organization’s internal network than they had before. If a web server is inside the organization’s firewall and is penetrated by an attacker on the how to save up money fast as a teenager internet, the attacker can use the web server as a launching how to save up money fast as a teenager point for attacks on the internal systems. Thus, these attacks would completely bypass the security provided by the how to save up money fast as a teenager firewall.

Most web sites contain scripts (small programs) created locally by web site developers. A web server runs these scripts when a user requests how to save up money fast as a teenager a page. Attackers can use these scripts to penetrate web sites by how to save up money fast as a teenager finding and exercising flaws in the code. To find such flaws, an attacker does not necessarily need the script source code. Scripts must be carefully written with security in mind and how to save up money fast as a teenager system administrators should inspect them before placing them on a how to save up money fast as a teenager web site. Do not allow scripts to run arbitrary commands on a how to save up money fast as a teenager system or to launch insecure (or non-patched) programs. Scripts should restrain users to doing a small set of how to save up money fast as a teenager well-defined tasks. They should carefully restrict the size of input parameters so how to save up money fast as a teenager that an attacker cannot give a script more data than how to save up money fast as a teenager it expects. If an attacker can do this, a system can often be penetrated using a technique called how to save up money fast as a teenager buffer overflow. (with a buffer overflow attack, an attacker convinces a web server to run arbitrary code how to save up money fast as a teenager by giving it more information than it expected to receive.) run scripts with non-administrator privileges to prevent an attacker from compromising the entire how to save up money fast as a teenager web server if a script contains flaws.

A router set up to separate a web server from how to save up money fast as a teenager the rest of the network can shield a web server how to save up money fast as a teenager from many attacks. The router can thwart attacks before they reach the web how to save up money fast as a teenager server by dropping all packets that do not access valid how to save up money fast as a teenager web server services. Typically, the router should drop all network packets that do not how to save up money fast as a teenager go either to the web server (port 80) or to the remote administration server being used. For additional security, only allow a pre-approved list of hosts to send traffic to a web how to save up money fast as a teenager server’s remote administration server. By doing so, an attacker can only compromise a web server using the how to save up money fast as a teenager remote administration server via a restricted set of network paths. The filtering router shield offers similar protection to that of how to save up money fast as a teenager removing all unneeded software from a host since it prevents how to save up money fast as a teenager an attacker from requesting certain vulnerable services. Be aware that setting up a router with many filtering how to save up money fast as a teenager rules may noticeably slow its ability to forward packets.

Regardless of the security measures established for a web server, penetration may still occur. If this happens, it is important to limit the attacker’s actions on the penetrated host. Separation of privilege is a key concept for restricting actions how to save up money fast as a teenager once a part of the host is penetrated. To establish such control, partition the various host resources among a set of user how to save up money fast as a teenager accounts. An attacker who penetrates some software will then be limited how to save up money fast as a teenager to acting within that single user account instead of having how to save up money fast as a teenager control over the entire system. For example, a web server can run as one user, but the web pages can be owned by another user how to save up money fast as a teenager and with the web server given read-only access. Then, if attackers penetrate the web server, they cannot change the web pages owned by other users.

Hardware can implement separation of privilege concepts with more security how to save up money fast as a teenager than software because hardware is not as easily modified as how to save up money fast as a teenager software. With software implementations, if the underlying operating system is penetrated, the attacker has complete control of all files on a how to save up money fast as a teenager web server. Using read-only external hard disks or CD-roms, web pages and even critical software can be stored in how to save up money fast as a teenager a way that an attacker cannot modify the files. The usual configuration is for the web server to have how to save up money fast as a teenager a read-only port to the external hard disk while another well-protected computer has a read-write port so that the web pages can be updated. Note that an attacker who penetrates a protected web server how to save up money fast as a teenager can still copy data, change the copied data, and serve up the changed pages.

Modern web servers often serve as front ends to complex how to save up money fast as a teenager and possibly distributed applications. In this situation, a web server often communicates with several other hosts, each of which contains particular data or performs particular computations. It is tempting to locate these computers inside of an how to save up money fast as a teenager organization’s firewall for ease of maintenance and to protect these how to save up money fast as a teenager important computers. However, if an attacker can compromise a web server, these back-end systems may be penetrated using the web server as how to save up money fast as a teenager a launching point. Instead, it is a good idea to separate the web server how to save up money fast as a teenager back end systems from the rest of the organization’s networks using an internal firewall. Then, penetration of the web server and subsequently the web server’s back end systems does not provide access to the how to save up money fast as a teenager rest of the organization’s networks.

Despite all attempts to patch a web server and to how to save up money fast as a teenager securely configure it, vulnerabilities may still exist that are known to the outside how to save up money fast as a teenager world. Also, the web server may be perfectly secure but an attacker how to save up money fast as a teenager may cleverly overwhelm the host’s services such that it ceases to operate. In this kind of environment, it is important to know when your web server has how to save up money fast as a teenager been compromised or shut down so that service can be how to save up money fast as a teenager quickly restored. Network-based intrusion detection systems (idss) monitor network traffic to determine whether a web server is how to save up money fast as a teenager under attack or has been compromised or disabled. Modern idss can launch a limited response to attacks or how to save up money fast as a teenager notify systems administrators via e-mail, pagers, or messages on a security console. Typical automated responses include killing network connections and blocking sets how to save up money fast as a teenager of IP addresses.

Host-based idss reside on a web server. Thus, they are better positioned to determine the state of the how to save up money fast as a teenager web server than a network-based ID. They provide the same benefits as network-based idss and in some circumstances, can detect attacks better because they have finer grained access how to save up money fast as a teenager to the web server’s state. However, some drawbacks exist. An attacker that penetrates a web server can disable a how to save up money fast as a teenager host-based ID, thereby preventing it from issuing a warning. In addition, remote denial-of-service (DOS) attacks often disable host-based idss while disabling the web server. Remote DOS attacks enable an attacker to remotely shut down how to save up money fast as a teenager a web server without penetrating it. Thus, host-based idss are useful but they should be used in how to save up money fast as a teenager conjunction with the typically more secure network-based idss.

However, a web server can be made quite resistant to attacks how to save up money fast as a teenager by using the stated web server security techniques in addition how to save up money fast as a teenager to using trustworthy software. By trustworthy, we mean software that can be demonstrated by some measure how to save up money fast as a teenager to be secure. The security afforded by software can be assessed by studying how to save up money fast as a teenager past vulnerabilities, using software specifically created with security as the principle goal, and using software evaluated by trusted third parties.

First, some level of assurance in software can be gained by how to save up money fast as a teenager looking at the past vulnerabilities discovered in different web server how to save up money fast as a teenager software. The number of past vulnerabilities is an indicator of future how to save up money fast as a teenager vulnerabilities and also reflects how well the software was crafted. Trustworthiness is directly related to the quality of the software how to save up money fast as a teenager product. A poorly crafted product built explicitly to meet security needs how to save up money fast as a teenager remains a poorly crafted product and therefore not trustworthy.

A third way to gain a level of assurance in how to save up money fast as a teenager software is to use evaluated and validated software. Many private-sector organizations perform third-party evaluations of commercial products in order to verify a how to save up money fast as a teenager particular level of security. One of the largest of these efforts is the national how to save up money fast as a teenager information assurance partnership (NIAP). A joint venture between NIST and NSA, NIAP has helped create an international standard (ISO/IEC 15408) for specifying security requirements of IT products and evaluating them how to save up money fast as a teenager to that specification. It provides a framework by which commercial companies can have how to save up money fast as a teenager product claims tested by a third party and (if desired) obtain a certificate of validation from NIAP. Various security-enhanced products are currently under evaluation, including the firewalls of three major U.S. Vendors. Look in the future for NIAP-evaluated web server software.

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